Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Online Community Essay Sample free essay sample

Introduction Online community is a term that is used to mention to a bunch of people who are known to interact chiefly through assorted media of communicating. These communicating media include Usenet. electronic mail. telephone. and letters. They don’t value and neither do they utilize communicating that is face to face based. This group of people is sometimes referred to as e-community or practical community. The chief mechanism for on-line community group is web via a computing machine. Largely this group of people does non cognize each other in existent life state of affairs. These people use means that are rather diverse in nature in their communicating. They include embodiments. picture texts and chat-rooms that are text based. These are sometimes used in combination or individually. This has been made easy through creative activity of webs in the societal sector. This advancement is due to the important alterations that have occurred in line with socio proficient sector. ( Barry. 1997 ) Background Online communities have existed throughout history. It is merely that technological progresss have encouraged their being. This is non a new thought wholly. It is known that during the 17th century. there was an on-line community that communicated through letters. They were extremely associated with the Royal Society. National newspapers were known to lend extremely to online communities during this epoch. Online community Initially. a community was defined by the geographical boundaries. This included small towns and even vicinities. On-line communities on the other manus are rather dispersed in relation to their geographical boundaries. Online communities are merely but people who have a common undertaking. involvement and thought. These people usually interact in a society that is virtually based. This usually occurs across the organizational. geographical and besides clip boundaries. There are really many theories about on-line communities. It is apparent that incorporation of users into on-line communities really follows engagement that is legitimate in nature. They can be described as peripheral. inbound. insider. boundary and outbound. This last phase the member leaves the community chiefly due to assorted grounds like relationships. It is really easy for a individual in another continent to hold changeless communicating with another 1 in a really different community. Research indicates that different communities that are online based have degrees of interaction that are really different excessively. On-line communities that are invariably pass oning through confab suites and message boards are deriving popularity compared to those pass oning through letters. This is due to the fact that they are faster agencies of communicating compared to the latter. Online community in most instances does non hold really strong bonds between its members. This is particularly those who interrelate through the cyberspace. Sometimes the communicating between members of on-line community is merely informational based. In this instance the members can merely e-mail inquiries and replies to each other. It is nevertheless clear that the members merely remain being aliens to each other. Another facet is that there is a comparatively high turnover rate in the rank. ( Barzilai. 2003 ) These communities chiefly depend on societal exchange and interaction between the members that are online. This tendency is besides catching up within the concern sector. Sometimes they can dwell of topical or even regional organisations. In this instance organizations carry out their concern activities online. This includes merchandising and buying from other organisations. The merchandises are usually posted in order to make the individual who ordered for the goods. These communities are nurtured through the assorted package tools in the market. They include Google groups. Yahoo groups and Microsoft Sharepoint packages. Online communities consist of people of different cultural backgrounds and of different position. Sometimes they get to cognize of each other by default etc. Others get to cognize their members email reference through online advertizements and through newspapers. It is known that changeless communicating usually consequences in friendly relationship which can even go intimate though the two parties don’t physically meet. This is whereby there are on-line lovers who have neer met and neither do they cognize how their spouses look like. By and large the life style in this 20 first century has encouraged this type of community and its operations. ( Kim. . 2000 ) Claims There are claims that on-line communities can really function as a land where felons operate. They include money launderers. stalkers and besides stealers. This usually puts immature kids at hazard of kid trafficking. There are besides claims that when an single spends a batch of clip in on-line interactions and communities. this can hold negative effects of the individual’s normal interactions in the existent universe. This is usually referred to as a upset of internet dependence. This claim is non justified because there is no manner an person can neglect to interact in existent life. The clip that people spend communicating through media like letters. cyberspace etc is rather minimum compared to that clip spent in existent life interacting face to face to friends and relations. Many bookmans have critiqued the whole thought online communities are non communities at all. This is whereby the term community means an entity that is geographically circumscribed. Looking at these claims that online communities are non communities shows some narrow manner of looking at things. This is because a community is that which has boundaries of any kind. A community is besides known to be rather unstable where there are people traveling in and out. This automatically makes on-line communities to be truly regarded as communities. ( Preece. 2000 ) There are besides claims that on-line interactions affect offline 1s negatively. This is because it is alleged that practical life takes over people’s lives. It is believed that it makes people have different personalities and in the long tally clash is caused in offline groups. This is non true since people spend more clip in offline interactions than online. Many people have benefited from on-line communities. This is because research shows that this group has narratives of people who need particular aid from the community and in the long tally they get assistance. This could be in relation to career pick among other determinations etc. This fact shows that on-line communities are really of import and rather helpful because people get assistance through them There are besides positive impacts that passed on to members. Three points that back up the allegations are- Decision Online community can be described as a group of people that interacts through assorted media channels. They include cyberspace. letters and phone calls among others. This group of people does non utilize face to confront interactions in their communications. They are people who have diverse geographical locations and can be of different ethnicity and cultural background. They nevertheless have a common end or purpose. This can be concern based where the communicating is between organisations. There are claims that these interactions negatively affect an individual’s online interactions. This is non true as the clip spent in offline interactions supersedes that taken in the latter. Other claims include the facet that this is non a community because of geographical disparity. It is a community there is motion in and out of the group. All in all on-line interactions have made people to easy interact without bound of folk. race. geographical background and clip factor. A program of action that can be carried out to do on-line communities more meaningful is to sensitise people to hold clear ends that affect members positively. Police besides need to update their condemnable trailing engineering in order to follow up those that online based. Mention: Barry. W. ( 1997 ) : An Electronic Group is virtually a Social Network. In Culture of the Internet ; NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum ; Pp. 179-205 Barzilai. G. ( 2003 ) : Communities and Law: Politicss and Cultures of Legal Identities ; Ann Arbor ; the University of Michigan Press Kim. . J. ( 2000 ) : Community Building on the Web ; Secret Strategies for Successful Online Communities ; London ; Addison Wesley Preece. J. ( 2000 ) : On-line Communities ; Supporting Sociability ; Designing Usability ; Chichester: – John Wiley A ; Sons Ltd

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Legal Research Essay Example

Legal Research Essay Simon, a first year law student, decided to buy a DVD for use at university. He wanted a machine that would play his own DVDs as he had a collection of films he had copied from video to DVD at home. He explained exactly what he wanted at the shop. However, when he got the machine home he found it would not play home-recorded material, but it did play the pre-recorded DVDs he had bought. He went back to the shop but they said they did not have the machine he wanted at that he could not have his money back as the DVD player they sold him was in perfect working order. Simon, deciding he needed a break booked a holiday, looking for: Sun, sand and Sangria. He told the holiday agents exactly what he wanted; lots of people, a full night life, luxury accomodation and the beach. He was assured that Hotel Luxor in Macedonia in July would be perfect to meet his needs. He took the holiday, paying by credit card. On his arrival, he found himself booked into a small chalet in the mountains, where it snowed. There was no room service,lights out at 10.00 pm and the only other guest at the chalet was a surly sheep. Thoroughly dissapointed, Simon returned to Liverpool to resume his law studies. However, he had not paid his full fees from the previous year and was not allowed to enrol on the degree. Advise Simon of his legal remedies in all the above circumstances. We will write a custom essay sample on Legal Research specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Legal Research specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Legal Research specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer With view of the Sales of Goods Act 1979, Simon has a case for compensation in regards to a breach of conduct. In addition, Simon needs to look at Loss of Enjoyment, and Inconvinience, in regards to a falsely represented holiday abroad. Finally, the last paragraph deals with basic contract law, and the failure of paying for tuition fees. Section 2(1) of the Sale of Goods Act 1979 defines a contract of sales of goods as a contract by which the seller transfers or agrees to transfer the property in goods to the buyer for a money consideration, called the price. Section 13(1) of the Sale of Goods Act 1979 states that where there is a contract for the sale of goods by description, there is an implied term that the goods correspond with the discription. Section 14 deals with the implied terms about quality or fitness. Ss(3) states that where the seller sells goods in the course of a business and the buyer, expressly, or by implication, makes known to the seller (a) any particular purpose for which the goods are being bought, there is an implied term that the goods supplied under the contract are reasonably fit for that purpose Simon explained exactly what he wanted at the shop and thus the particular purpose as to why the good was being purchased, however the DVD machine that he purcahsed did not correspond with the description, and therefore did not satisfy the purpose for the purchase. An important remedy available to Simon is the rejection of the goods for breach of contract. Simon does not need to return the goods to the selller to reject the goods, as it is enough if he informs the seller that he refuses to accept them [Grimoldby v Wells] [1875]1. If there is any breach of condition within the time limited for performance the seller makes a conforming tender, then this may be effective. [Borrowman, Phillips Co v Free and Hollis] [1878]2. Simon may look to a compensatory damages for breach of conduct in regards to the DVD player. The aim of compensation is to put the claimant into as good a position as would have been if no breach of conduct had been committed. [Robinson v Harman] (1848)3 In 1994 a Bill was implemented and has now passed into law as the Sale and Supply of Goods Act 1994. The main change effecting this are to modify the quality warranties, and ammend the rules on acceptance and rejection. The three main terms laid down in the act are present in s13, s14(2), and s14(3), and the main objective of them is to give buyers some protection against the risk of the goods proving to have defects of quality or fitness for purpose. There is implied term that where goods are sold by description the goods must correspond with their description, however the protection here can be limited, particularly where the description of goods is not a detailed one. 4Distinction between s14(2) and s14(3) had been been muddled because such a wide interprentation has been given to s14(3) that it covers ordinary purpose as well as special purposes, leading to significant overlapping. Therefore Section 14(6) was implemented in order to distinguish between the two sections [Jones v Bright][1829]5 Section 14(6) provides the test of fitness for purpose. This provided the statutory definition of merchatable quality. Its main element requires that the goods should be reasonably fit for the purpose for which goods of that kind were commonly bought [Aswan Engineering Establishment Co v Lupdine Ltd] [1987]6 1 7Under the original section 14(1) the buyer has to satisfy the court that he had expressly or by implication made known to the seller the particular purpose for which the goods were required so as to show that he relied on the sellers skill or judgement The current s14(3) now mainly confirms the old case law on this point. It is now clear that the onus is on the buyer in the first place is to only show that he has made known the purpose for which the goods are being bought. Reliance will then be presumed, unless the seller can show it to have been unreasonable. [Grant v Austrailian Knitting Mills][1936]8 In Simons case, it states that he explained exactly what he wanted , and so it is assumed that the seller understood precisely what Simon required. The seller could argue that Simon was unreasonably reliant on him to find him the right good. [Dorset Yacht Company Ltd v Home Office], [1970]9. In contrast, if the defendants can show that the breach is so slight that it would be unreasonable for the buyer to reject the goods, then the breach will be just warranty.10 Damages may be awarded for injury to the victims inconvenience or loss of enjoyment where the inconvenience or loss would have been presumed to have been contemplated by the parties at the time of entering the contract [British Columbia Saw-Mill Co Ltd v Nettleship] [1868]11 12In contracts to provide entertainment and enjoyment, (such as holidays), damages may be awarded for loss of enjoyment and the frustration, annoyance and disappointment associated with such loss [Jarvis v Swans Tour] [1973]13 Since this decision in Jarvis v Swans Tour [1973], the courts have awarded damages for loss of enjoyment and the reduced value of the holiday purchased. A charge for reduced value of the holiday purchased (diminution in value) is where a service which has been contracted for, but has not been provided, or where there has been some other breach of the contract between the supplier of the holiday or service and the holidaymaker. If this is the case the claimant claims the difference between what he purchased and what he received Loss of enjoyment is the 14distress, vexation, disappointment and annoyance suffered by a claimant on holiday, and they were unable to enjoy their holiday because of factors for which the defendant is liable. Simon may be entitled to damages for disappointment and loss of enjoyment suffered as a result of the breach of contract. This recognises the objective of a holiday contract, to provide enjoyment, peace of mind and relaxation. To work out how much damges Simon would be awarded the judge would try to find the difference in value between what the holidaymaker contracted to receive and what was actually received. So for Simon it would be the difference between Sun, sand, and sangria, lots of people, full night life, luxury accommodation, and a beach and in contrast small chalet in the mountains, snow, no room service, lights out at 10pm, and no other guests. If Simon is to receive damages, the ammount awarded is dependant on a number of components. The main components consist of the length of the holiday, and the price of it. In addition, the importance of the holiday is a main factor. Simon could argue that the holiday was extremely important to him, as earlier on in the case it says he is in need of a break after the stress caused to him with the DVD player he purchased. If Simon can argue this case succesfully then the courts may look at his case in a favourable maner. It is likely Simon could claim a complete refund, if he can argue that the contract came to nothing and he got not one thing for which he had been contracted. Simon could argue that the holiday was inordinately bad [Forsdyke v Panorama Holiday Group Ltd][2002]15 as what he received was almost the opposite of what the contract he agreed, and therefore claim back between two and two and a half times the cost of the holiday, as suggested by District Judge Geoffery Martin. The University has made an offer to Simon of a place on the course. An offer is a proposal or proposition by one party, who is willing to be bound by the terms of the proposal if accepted by another party. An acceptance must be full and complete, and by Simon enroling on the course, he subsequently accepted in full the offer. 16Universities reserve the right to impose sanctions against students who refuse to pay fees, and may result in the suspension of the students registration. As Simon has failed to pay the University , he is unable to register for the next year of the course. However he may be allowed to be reinstated on the course if he clears the debt or some sort of a repayment schedule is agreed. In conclusion, Simon may look to receive compensation for the DVD player, as long as he takes the old one back in the same condition it was in when purchased. Furthermore, Simon may also look to be awarded in damages for loss of enjoyment, and inconvinience regarding the holiday to Macedonia, as it was not the holiday type he had described to the seller that he wanted. Finally, Simon may be able to get his place back on the unervisity course if he can pay the debt he owes to the university, subsequently if he can not afford to, then he can arrange a repayment schedule.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

A Portrait of the Artist as a Yong Man

A Portrait of the Artist as a Yong Man Joyce â€Å"A Portrait of the Artist as a Yong Man† by James Joyce has several important themes that relate to a person’s individuality, its natural development and conscious evolution of the personality and understanding.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on A Portrait of the Artist as a Yong Man specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the motifs is the defiance of religion and the moral understanding of the world. Stephen does understand that he is not only breaking religious codes, but also does damage to his morality. Every time he engages in the services of prostitutes, he chooses to forget about religion. This is a deeper theme where a person holds back on their morals, only to redeem themselves later. In time, he understands that he must live a life by ethical and moral criteria, embracing all that has been given to people. This clearly illustrates the two extremes of his personality. One is comp letely disobedient to any social regulations while the other is pure, and wants to lead a life free of sin (Joyce, 2011). Another motif pertains to Stephen wanting to become an artist and choosing isolation as one of the necessary steps towards his goal. From one perspective, he leaves everything behind to pursue own dreams, and thinks it will make him a better artist. From another, he understands that his community and family have made him who he is, and they will always be a part of his inner world and understanding. He is shown to be appreciative of the knowledge he has received, thus he plans to give back to the community in a form of his art (Wollaeger, 2003). A rather crucial motif is the development of the individuality and understanding of the surrounding world. At the beginning, Stephen is described as a child who is not fully aware of the world. The words and phrases that are used qualify as simplistic and naive. It is as if he is a distant observer of the surrounding worl d, and does not really participate in its seriousness. Later, when he become a teenager, his thoughts are more defined and understanding. But still, he is very much devoted to the church, letting the rules of society and religion to define his comprehension of life. In the end, he becomes a fully reasonable person. He attends the university, and is shown to have reached great potential in his logical thinking, as well as emotional understanding of own character and people (Attridge, 1990).Advertising Looking for assessment on british literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Music and singing are another major motif of the novel. It is made to represent the way people escape the harsh reality of the world, and better their mood. Stephen appreciates music and singing because it is a part of the language that might seem the same but is quite different. It touches his inner parts of the soul, and sets the course for a life filled with kindness and emotion. Even when he hears a woman singing, he feels at peace, and sets his goals on becoming an artist. It is made clear how the power of a song and music can help anyone to set their mind on personal dreams and try everything to achieve them. The same can be said about the prayers and religious singing. Stephen feels the power of a song when he visits the church, and the phrases become embedded in his mind for the rest of his life (Bloom, 2009). The novel touches upon several important divisions of a person’s life. All are key in the development of a healthy personality, especially an artist. It is made obvious that everyone is an artist at heart; it just takes time to discover which particular one. References Attridge, D. (1990). The Cambridge Companion to James Joyce. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Bloom, H. (2009). James Joyce. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing. Joyce, J. (2011). A Portrait of the Artist As a Young Man. London, UK: Interactive Media. Wollaeger, M. (2003). James Joyces A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man: A Casebook. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on A Portrait of the Artist as a Yong Man specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Promote Your Writing On Facebook

Promote Your Writing On Facebook Promote Your Writing On Facebook Promote Your Writing On Facebook By Guest Author This is a guest post by Lela Davidson. If you want to write for Daily Writing Tips check the guidelines here. Love it, hate it, or tolerate it, Facebook is here, maybe not to stay- because nothing is changing faster than media- but it’s here now. Facebook is an important way to reach readers and network with clients, fellow writers, and editors. I use Facebook every day to engage readers (and potential readers), and to network with those who can help me reach more readers. Through significant daily interactions, ‘branded’ messages, and posting links to my work, I hope to build that all important ‘platform’ we someday-to-be-bestsellers need. A Short History of a Reluctant Facebook Junkie I opened my Facebook account under duress. A client required links from a Facebook profile to the blog posts I’d written. I’d already tried (and given up on) social bookmarking sites like Digg and Stumble and I resented the extra time it took to pimp my posts. I wanted to be a writer, not waste time working the system of you-click-my-link-I’ll-click-yours. However, in the short time the assignment lasted, I got hooked on Facebook. Interacting With Readers and Others Chatting up old friends on Facebook was training for how I use it now, which is more strategic, but not too different. I’ve branched out from my ‘real’ friends, embracing the concept of â€Å"Facebook Friends,† who may or may not be people I actually know IRL (in real life- do the kids still say that?). The decision about what to share and with whom is the biggest challenge for writers wanting to use Facebook for professional networking. For me it has been a seamless transition from my friends, to their friends, and beyond because most of what I write is personal. If I’m writing about the hair balls in my bathroom for a magazine essay, I don’t mind telling you about them in my status bar. Facebook allows me to engage readers and convert would-be readers, by giving them a preview of my longer writing. Keeping Your Distance If you don’t want to get too personal with readers you set up a Page, which is different from a Profile. Readers can become fans of your page and this fan status shows up in the information section of their profiles. Interaction from a page is limited, but it’s better than nothing. In addition to frequent status updates, it’s also extremely important to comment on your Facebook Friends’ status and links. This is interactive media. If all you do is talk about yourself, eventually no one will listen. Developing a Platform Both established and aspiring writers need a platform in order to sell their work. In Get Known Before the Book Deal, author Christina Katz defines platform as: . . . all the ways you are visible and appealing to your future, potential, or actual readership. Katz emphasizes that platform development is important not only for authors, but also for aspiring and soon-to-be authors. Interaction with your Facebook Friends builds the foundation of your relationship so that when you post a link, they may read it or pass it along via the Share function of Facebook. This lets every one of their Facebook Friends know that 1) it exists, and 2) they think it’s cool enough to be associated with. And Finally, Posting Those Links Wherever you are in your writing career, you have a core fan base of people who like what you write because they like you- family, friends, neighbors. Even my ‘real’ friends who aren’t interested in my writing are still interested in me. Maybe their friends and family might like what I’m writing. Facebook is the easiest way for them to share my stuff. The more I interact with them the more they are likely to find something they like. When that happens, the spread can be viral. I hope. It’s important to note that links are different from status updates. They don’t show up in your status bar, and unless they get a lot of Likes (thumbs up) or comments, they may not show up in your Facebook Friends’ news feeds either. I don’t feel like I’m pestering people with my links if I occasionally post more than one in a day. Also, when I’m commenting on someone else’s status, sometimes it’s natural to include a link. For example, I write a lot on family topics so whenever someone posts a status about their kid losing a tooth, I’ll comment with a link to an essay I wrote about the inflation of Tooth Fairy payouts. Friending Editors and Fanning Magazines As my essays have started to get picked up in more print magazines, I try to Friend the editors and become a Fan of the magazine’s website. (Sorry, fellow DWT guest author, but Friending and Fanning are verbs.) A lot of print magazines publish online versions. When the piece runs, I post a link, as well as thanking and tagging the editor in my status update. Before an editor has bought something of mine, we can connect as Facebook Friends. Though we may never meet in person, Facebook savvy gives me an edge over the hundreds of other writers hitting the inbox. Many of those editors use the same email on Facebook as they do for submissions, so I use Facebook’s automated ‘Find Friends’ utility to identify them. When it comes to social media there are no experts. So jump in- from wherever you are- and play. That’s what I did. Facebook has expanded my reach, helped build my ‘platform’, and put me in direct contact with readers, clients, and editors. It can do the same for you. Lela Davidson’s award-winning column, After the Bubbly, appears regularly in Peekaboo magazine, and periodically in other magazines throughout the country. She is the parenting columnist on HubPages and a regular contributor to ParentingSquad. Find out more on her wildly entertaining blog. Or just Google her. She loves to be Googled.    Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Freelance Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Using "a" and "an" Before WordsHow Long Should a Paragraph Be?Mankind vs. Humankind

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Police Brutality Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Police Brutality - Research Paper Example The brutality can be in verbal form where abuses and intimidation is used or even through actions. The task of police should be to maintain law and order, but surprisingly, they involve themselves in actions that defy their responsibilities. Police more often injure arrestees after they handcuff them or even when they are at the police cells or remand. Many arrestees complain of being hurt by police officers after complying with their orders. Rogue police hit, kick, or even punch arrestees leaving them with a lot of injuries and mental torture (Elicker, 2008). At times, police use excess power when arresting people who are not resistant to the police. Only such power fit to resistant and stubborn suspects but not people who are willing to comply. Some police officers use chock holds when arresting people, which is extremely intimidating and demeaning way of handling suspects since they have their human rights till proven guilty. Some police officers go to extend of hitting arrestees and other criminal suspects with harmful and dangerous instruments like guns. This exposes the victims to permanent or short-term effects. Many police brutality victims suffer brain injuries, body deformities, and spinal cord injuries while others die (Pinizzotto et al., 2012). Some police officers perceive use of electrical shock devices as a convenient way of inducing arrest of suspects. They target getting control of the arrestee without considering the effect of the shock to the individual. Consequently, many arrestees suffer from heart attacks and other personal injuries because of the electrical shock exposed to them. Through law, police officers should use guns at the last case situation, but contrary, police shootings and killings are increasing on a daily basis. As a result, many deaths result from shooting misidentified individuals, and bystanders (Fox, 2011). Due to the high numbers of firing guns, chances of stray bullets are also high. Therefore, the number of deaths of innocent people has increased. At times, police officers use a squad car to chase after a suspect. This racing event can result to an accident, which may cause deaths or even personal injuries to the suspect and the police officers. The reckless driving of a squad car can also pose a danger to pedestrians and other road users. Police officers also expose citizens to brutality by conducting illegal searches and seizures. Generally, the law stipulates that, for a police officer to search any premise, they must present a warrant from the authorities authorizing hem to exercise the search. Unfortunately, many officers bang citizens’ houses and premises without any legal document and start their operations. In most cases if the owners demand explanations or exhibit resistance, they get a thorough beating or threats. Some police officers force their way to citizens’ premises and take property claiming to be under investigation. They offer minimum explanation or none at all to the owner. This is wrong since every individual has the right to posses property and get information whenever need arises. Many arrestees complain that police officers coerce them to honour up crimes they have not committed. The torture they undergo while under law enforcers, force them to plead guilty of others crimes and get the punishment while the real culprits go unpunished. This is not right because it exposes innocent person to a lot of mental torture and physical

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Four Geographic Traditions Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Four Geographic Traditions - Research Paper Example As such, the core definitions of each of these traditions will be discussed as well as a level of analysis performed on which tradition speaks best to which particular aspect of geographical analysis. What is noteworthy before delving into a firm and functional definition of each of these four traditions is to understand that the subject of geography has always, since its inception, been focused on the art and science of definition. Without definition, geography would have but a few actionable uses. In this way, it is important for the reader to understand that each of the following four approaches that will be discussed should be viewed within just such a prism. Although one is not superior to all of the others at all time, each in their own way can provide a useful tool of analysis which can help the reader/researcher to draw a level of inference on specific research questions and can help to shine a valuable level of insight into key determinants that would otherwise not be able t o be fully answered with the application and/or use of another of the traditions. Similarly, although each of the four following traditions are still in use within the community of geographic research and scientific studies, some are used to a greater and more affective use than others. Additionally, as the field grows, evolves, and advances, some of the four will no doubt decrease in overall performance; however, this unavoidable decrease of some of these traditions is no reason not to consider the fundamental determinants that have sought to define the way in which the field has progressed and continues to define itself up until the current juncture in time. Naturally, from the aforementioned list, the first of these traditions that will be discussed and analyzed is that of the spatial tradition. The spatial tradition is perhaps the best known and the most common of historical geographic traditions in that it seeks to define a given region based solely upon a firm differentiation of what is â€Å"other† and what is not. Although this tradition is perhaps the oldest in historical terms of implementation and usage, the fact of the matter is that is has continued to grow and develop throughout history (Pattison 3). As a function of this, the tradition has grown to incorporate computerized mapping (i.e. GIS and the like), quantitative techniques and tools for the representation of otherwise abstract geographic terms, aerial photography, and a litany of other spatial analysis tools that have helped to define, group, and differentiate otherwise indistinguishable determinants from one another within the realm of geography and geographic research and interpretation. This â€Å"oldest† of traditions continues to evolve and incorporate the different aspects of technological advancement that have manifested themselves throughout society and the sciences. As a function of this growth, the spatial tradi

Friday, January 24, 2020

The Mighty Wedge of Class :: essays research papers fc

Mighty Wedge of Class by Todd Erkel Class is a curious, almost elusive thing. It makes rare appearances now and then in talk of the economy and such or in more heated academic debates, but rarely in private. It seems American pretty much avoid the subject at every opportunity by attempting to deny that these class divisions between people exist. But the stark reality is that class structures in America create the very nature of society, setting the hierarchical framework on which every American maintains an identity. This identity is often easily defined by economic standing or material wealth. But it can’t be that easy. As R. Todd Erkel seems to imply in his essay, "The Mighty Wedge of Class," which explores his working-class background, "class" is largely a construction of environment, while money factors little. But does it? Careful analysis of his essay shows that, although the cultural environment of a class, particularly the influence of parents and education, are important factors in d etermining one’s class, it is clear that money essentially determines and ultimately defines one’s class status in American society. Although Erkel presents evidence that the culture into which one is raised influences one’s future class status, he clearly suggests that it is essentially the possession of money that constructs this culture. His experience of growing up in a working class environment made him familiar with the general environment of the working class culture, particularly the behavior of those around him, especially his parents. However, this common behavior among the working class is largely shaped, if not determined, by common financial status. It is his parents’ status of low wealth in society that causes this behavior. He notes that, "the message received by children whose parents have battled with the world and come away feeling defeated is that they are better off not even trying." Erkel’s parents are one of many who try to make it financially in this "land of opportunity," but fail to achieve great wealth, fail to land the jobs that could elevate thei r status to one of high economic standing; thus, they are "willing to settle." Implied by his parents’ example is that the inability to find success financially in life shapes the common lifestyle of the working class and way of approaching life, particularly behavior. This behavior, the appearance of low wealth, creates and perpetuates the culture of the working class. Erkel was naturally influenced by this and learned to imitate this appearance. The Mighty Wedge of Class :: essays research papers fc Mighty Wedge of Class by Todd Erkel Class is a curious, almost elusive thing. It makes rare appearances now and then in talk of the economy and such or in more heated academic debates, but rarely in private. It seems American pretty much avoid the subject at every opportunity by attempting to deny that these class divisions between people exist. But the stark reality is that class structures in America create the very nature of society, setting the hierarchical framework on which every American maintains an identity. This identity is often easily defined by economic standing or material wealth. But it can’t be that easy. As R. Todd Erkel seems to imply in his essay, "The Mighty Wedge of Class," which explores his working-class background, "class" is largely a construction of environment, while money factors little. But does it? Careful analysis of his essay shows that, although the cultural environment of a class, particularly the influence of parents and education, are important factors in d etermining one’s class, it is clear that money essentially determines and ultimately defines one’s class status in American society. Although Erkel presents evidence that the culture into which one is raised influences one’s future class status, he clearly suggests that it is essentially the possession of money that constructs this culture. His experience of growing up in a working class environment made him familiar with the general environment of the working class culture, particularly the behavior of those around him, especially his parents. However, this common behavior among the working class is largely shaped, if not determined, by common financial status. It is his parents’ status of low wealth in society that causes this behavior. He notes that, "the message received by children whose parents have battled with the world and come away feeling defeated is that they are better off not even trying." Erkel’s parents are one of many who try to make it financially in this "land of opportunity," but fail to achieve great wealth, fail to land the jobs that could elevate thei r status to one of high economic standing; thus, they are "willing to settle." Implied by his parents’ example is that the inability to find success financially in life shapes the common lifestyle of the working class and way of approaching life, particularly behavior. This behavior, the appearance of low wealth, creates and perpetuates the culture of the working class. Erkel was naturally influenced by this and learned to imitate this appearance.